Men In 1972, US legislators passed a seemingly simple law (commonly known as Title IX) against sexism in education. Or be discriminated against under an educational program or activity that is funded by the federal government. “
Officially June 23, the 50th Anniversary is celebrated with countless documentaries and news articles about the promotion of gender equality in sports, especially at the university level. Indeed, it’s so integrated into American culture that women’s sports apparel companies have named it Title Nine, using marketing such as “Busy boobs need a better bra.”
Certainly, the effects of Title IX are not limited to sports. The details vary depending on who is in the White House, but this is the way to manage sexual harassment on campus. And the law not only equalized gender equality in universities, but also completely reversed the gender equality of almost 3-2 in 1970 to today’s opposition.
A similar story is being developed in international sports. At last year’s Tokyo Olympics, American women won 66 medals and men won 41 medals (the other six were from open or mixed events). Decades.
University and academic sports based on the Title IX domain do not always play a direct role in the success of the Olympic Games.Female gymnasts tend to compete in college rear Their Olympic career, if any. The NCAA does not sponsor some sports competitions in which American women have won medals in Tokyo. The college horseback riding event is just a distant cousin of the Olympic program. However, athletes such as Katie Zaferes, a former long-distance runner of Syracuse who turned to triathlon, and Sarah Robles, who abandoned Shotput’s career in pursuit of weightlifting, have made a slight detour from school sports to Olympic sports. Did.
More generally, the rise of women’s college sports and the subsequent wave of international success in football and basketball has broadened the scope of what female athletes can achieve. Previous generations had few opportunities and bowed momentarily on the world stage to celebrate medals in gymnastics, swimming, athletics, and figure skating. This is another sport where NCAA competitions do not exist.
But not the Olympics, but US universities and high schools are where Title IX has had the most direct impact. From 1982 to 2020, the number of women in NCAA University Sports increased from 64,390 (28% of student athletes) to 221,212 (44%) before the Covid pandemic slightly reduced the number of student athletes. did. High school sports data tells a similar story. In the year that Title IX was introduced in 1972, only 294,015 (about 7%) of the approximately 4 million high school athletes registered were women. The number for 2019 is 4,534,758 for boys and 3,402,733 for girls, divided into 57 to 43.
That, of course, is not a 50:50 split between male and female athletes. And the progress left behind can be controversial, especially at universities.
The first question is how to define whether a school is Title IX compliant. To comply, the school must meet some of the commonly cited “3 prong tests”.
* Is the school “completely and effectively responding to the benefits and abilities of undervalued gender”? This prong is a bit outdated, despite efforts to clarify it. Even universities that do not offer scholarships are recruiting athletes. Students usually do not appear on college campuses and are interested in and aptitude for sports that do not yet exist in school. In high school, many sports are by their nature exclusive, making it difficult to measure “interest” and “ability.” How many reasonably competent boys and girls did not form a soccer or basketball team?
* What is the history of the school that built the opportunity for “underrated gender” (female in all cases except the rarest cases)? This is also difficult to quantify. Are there any points that the school can “maximize” or do we need to keep finding additional sports for women? Over the past few decades, schools have sought to catch up by adding large women’s teams in sports such as rowing, usually without simultaneous teams for men.
* Does the number of sports participants reflect school registration? In other words, if the school is 60% female (often), is 60% of the school athletes also female? The advocacy group Champion Women created the database just before the pandemic. This indicates that few schools are compliant and many schools have to experience difficult distortions to meet the standards.
Ironically, the universities with the most women are the ones that are least likely to comply with attendance. The only schools that worked well in the Champion Women survey were a small number of schools that enrolled far more men than women.In other words, universities that have succeeded in meeting the intent of increasing Title IX. education Opportunities for women can be punished by the consequences of strict enforcement rather than increasing Athletic Opportunities by adding women-only sports or reducing football teams.
Another complex aspect of moving forward is that the very concept of a large-scale grasp of the national team’s sport for university culture is questioned. According to a 2015 study by The Drake Group, 98% of NCAA’s athletic programs are funded by student tuition, which does not always work in times of student debt concern. Also, in the Operation Varsity Blues scandal, parents forge their daughter’s athlete resume and accept only a small percentage of applicants, including creative photo editing, but often hired athletes from wealthy families. I found some embarrassing cases of enrolling in an accepting elite university. It can afford the best coaches – go through the gates.
Finally, the NCAA needs to consider the impact of name, image, and portrait (NIL) opportunities that give student athletes the opportunity to make money. As expected, most of the money went to soccer and basketball players, but female basketball players and some gymnasts are doing well. How will the NCAA and Watchdog Group incorporate these opportunities into the Title IX rating?
However, no matter what happens in the future, the impact of Title IX will continue and it is almost impossible to exaggerate. Many women are athletes. Many athletes are women. And for the generation that has grown since Title IX was enacted, that’s exactly what it is, and it’s sure to be.