According to an interesting review of the link between fitness, weight, heart health and longevity published this year, exercise is more important than losing weight for better health and longevity, especially if you are overweight or obese. is.
Analyzing the results of hundreds of previous studies on weight loss and exercise in men and women, obese people usually do much more than weight loss and diet to reduce heart disease and premature death. It turns out to reduce the risk.
Reviews add evidence that most people can be healthy at any weight if they are active enough.
I’ve written a lot about the science of exercise and weight loss, but much of it is frankly unpleasant if your goal is to lose weight. This latest study overwhelmingly shows that people who start exercising rarely or never lose weight unless they significantly reduce their food intake.
Exercise alone generally consumes very few calories that help you lose weight. We also consume some of the small calorie consumption of exercise later, either by eating more, by reducing movement, or by unknowingly slowing down the body’s metabolic manipulations, resulting in overall daily energy expenditure. It tends to be supplemented by reducing the amount.
Glenn Gaesser, a professor of exercise physiology at Arizona State University in the United States, is familiar with inadequate exercise for fat loss. For decades, he has studied the effects of physical activity on people’s body composition and metabolism, and their endurance, with a particular focus on obese people. Many of his previous studies emphasized the uselessness of exercise to lose weight.
In the 2015 experiment, he supervised. For example, 81 overweight, sedentary women started a routine of walking for 30 minutes three times a week. Twelve weeks later, some lost body fat, while 55 gained weight.
In another study by Dr. However, people with critical health conditions such as overweight, obesity, high blood pressure, low cholesterol profile, and insulin resistance, a marker of type 2 diabetes, may or may not lose weight after starting exercise. Showed a considerable improvement in the condition of. ..
Looking at these results, Gaesser can tell if an overweight person enjoys metabolic health regardless of weight and can live as long as a lean person, or if a lean person is sick. Began to wonder if he could live longer.
So, in a new study published this month at iScience, he and his colleague Siddhartha Angadi, a professor of educational athletics at the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, have a database of previous studies related to diet, exercise, and fitness. I started searching. Metabolic health and longevity.
They were particularly interested in meta-analysis. Meta-analyses pool and analyze data from multiple previous studies, allowing researchers to analyze results from far more people than most individual weight loss and exercise studies, which tend to be small. To.
Eventually, more than 200 individual studies related to meta-analyses were conducted. So they say what all this study, including tens of thousands of predominantly obese men and women, shows the relative benefits of losing weight or getting fit to improve metabolism and longevity. I started to see. In fact, they asked if heavy people gain more health by losing weight or by getting up and moving.
They found that the competition was not fierce. “In direct comparison, the magnitude of the benefits was much greater for improving fitness than for weight loss,” he said. Gacer.
Overall, according to the studies they quote, sedentary obese men and women who start exercising and improve their shape can reduce their risk of premature death by up to 30% or more, even if their weight does not change. .. This improvement generally lowers the risk of premature death compared to people who are considered to be normal weight but ill, Dr. Gaeser said.
On the other hand, when a heavy person loses weight by dieting (rather than illness), the statistical risk of dying at a young age is usually reduced by about 16%, but not all studies. Several studies cited in the new review concluded that weight loss in obese people does not reduce the risk of death.
The new reviews are not designed to accurately determine how exercise or weight loss affect the lifespan of obese people. However, in many studies they examined, people who lost weight on a diet regained it and then tried again — a “yo-yo” to weight loss that often contributes to metabolic problems such as diabetes, high cholesterol, and shorter. ”Approach life expectancy.
Meanwhile, he said the movement fights those same conditions. Also, unexpectedly, it can replenish people’s fat stores.
“Obesity people often lose visceral fat when exercising,” he said, but overall weight loss is negligible. Visceral fat, which accumulates deep inside our body, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.
Some studies they cite show that exercise also alters molecular signaling in other adipocytes in a way that can improve insulin resistance, regardless of human body weight. “Exercise seems to make fat healthier,” Gesser said.
The main point from the new review is that you don’t have to lose weight for your health. “It’s better to improve physical activity and fitness in terms of risk of death than to intentionally lose weight,” he said.
Translated by Luis Robert M. Gonzalves